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让照片更吸引人 摄影构图六大原则图解[转载]

发表日期:2008-03-13 摄影器材: 点击数: 投票数:
让照片更吸引人 摄影构图六大原则图解


你想没想过:为什么有些照片比其它照片更吸引人…

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样张

  为什么有些照片能在画廊里展出几个月甚至数年,供成千上万的人欣赏?

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样张

  你想没想过:为什么有些摄影师总能赢得比赛评委和评论家们的称赞?

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样张

  有些照片格外出色,主因之一就是具有良好的构图,这也正是本文的主旨所在。让我们来研究一下:如何善用构图来改进你照片的质量。

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样张

  构图是一门历史悠久的学科,早在摄影出现的2000年前,希腊和罗马人就已经应用了构图法则,这在其建筑中有明显的体现。

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样张

  在现代建筑学中,构图法也是一个重要组成部分。关于摄影构图的定义十分简单:在图片范围内,有美感地选择和安排物体。

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样张

  有些构图方法是将图形或物体摆放在特定的位置,而有些方法是靠改变相机的视角,只要相机有微小移动,就能在构图上产生强烈的变化。一些抓拍的照片也可能具有良好的构图,然而绝大多数好照片是用心创作的成果。
  如何创作出好照片呢?首先要学习的就是构图。

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样张

  当你学习完本指南后,你会发现获得构图良好的照片通常需要用心计划,有时还要耐心等待。你会发现构图将成为你摄影思维的一部分,并进而成为你的直觉。
  在本文中,我们将分六个部分讨论:简洁、三分法、线条、平衡、框架和避免遮盖。
 摄影构图原则:简洁
  简洁是最基本也是最重要的原则:想办法让你照片主题具有最强的视觉吸引力。一个方法就是选择简单的背景,这样不会分散观众对主题的注意力。

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右侧文字:电话?桥?还是仙人掌?


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海鸥

  在上面两张照片中我们当然离主题够近的了,可左边的照片背景杂乱,遮盖住了海鸥的身体,只要将相机的视角移动一点点,立竿见影,海鸥就在蓝天的背景上凸显出来。

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房屋

  构图时要清楚地表明你的拍摄意图,合理地安排主题外的其他物体,使其成为主题的补充。大多数人会喜欢右边这张照片,因为左面照片下的停车场与主题古老建筑的陈旧感产生矛盾。

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  这张有什么问题呀?

  请记住:我们正在讨论构图的简洁,有时你可能不得不做出选择:在照片中你要给主题分配多大的分量,是否应该采用上图这样的水平构图 或者,也许你更喜欢我们用框线标出的垂直构图,选择权在你。

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  综上所述,你可以通过以下方式简化画面和强调主题:选择简单的背景,避免画面中出现与主题无关的物体,以及将相机抵近拍摄。
 摄影构图原则:三分法
  如果你想令主题产生一些动感,可以将其稍微偏离画面中心,如下图中的这位小艺术家。

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小孩子

  总而言之,主题居于画面中心的构图会产生静止的感觉,而主题偏离画面中心的构图会更有趣些。

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个人觉得非常重要的摄影构图三分法

  个人觉得非常重要的摄影构图三分法:在将主体置于画面中心以外时,可用三分法作为构图指导,如下图所示。

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将整个画面纵横均分为三等份

  在拍照之前,先想象一下将整个画面纵横均分为三等份,得出四个交叉点,这便是良好构图中主体应处的位置。而具体将主体置于哪个点上则取决于主体本身和你想如何表现它。

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我们将主体置于右上点,这样可以表现出阴影和那行将视觉引向海鸥的脚印。


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灯塔位于右上点,因为其余部分的走势与画面布局相吻合。


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雪桥

  在这张例图中主题控制得很好。你可以将主体置于栈道上任何位置,但根据三分法,目前的位置是最好的,而且这种构图在画面中为主体指出了明确的行进路径(翻译心得:从而产生悠远和纵深的感觉)。

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在主体移动的情况下,一定要考虑路径问题。通常要在行进方向的前方留下足够空间。


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如果你不这么做的话,这就是后果:这位慢跑者看上去要跑到照片外面去了。


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将主体置于左下方,既符合三分法,又为主体留出了足够的移动空间。


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又一张运动照片,重点就在于:要在运动物体的前方留出更多空间。


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在画面纵向分割时也可应用三分法,上图中的船和地平线位于中间,给人静止和呆板的感觉。


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让我们把地平线提高到上三分之一处并将船置于左边

  让我们把地平线提高到上三分之一处并将船置于左边,记住,这里所说的不过是些指导性原则,如果你不喜欢这样构图,就换另外一种试试看。

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把地平线降到下三分之一处

  像这样,把地平线降到下三分之一处。通常而言,在风光照中要把地平线置于三分之一处,而很少摆在正中。

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地平线

  就像地平线最好不要在正中一样,纵向物体也最好不要摆在中间位置。例如,在左图中纵向物体位于中间,而右图中摄影者仅移动了一下相机,就得到了更有表现力的照片。
摄影构图原则:线条
  线条在构图中起着重要作用。这座雕塑具有优美的线条,但杂乱的背景掩盖了其特征。我们试着简化一下画面,将相机移到雕塑底部。

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天空背景

  现在我们可以向上看,发现这些线条映衬在明净的天空背景下。因为带有强烈动感的对角线条,使得右侧的照片更具表现力。

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  右侧文字:对角线条更具动感

  想象一下,这张照片如果失去对角向的光线会怎样?你可能会同意:对角线条更具动感。

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对角线条作为视线进入画面的引导

  你可以利用对角线条作为视线进入画面的引导,这是一个简单容易的方法,使观众的视线随着线条的指引而投向主体。

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你还可以利用重复线条来将观众的注意力吸引到主体上。


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在构图中最常见、也是最优雅的线条是S型线条。


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S型线条

  这里的S型线条同时形成了对角向的视觉引导线,同时主体的位置良好也使照片增色不少,这样构图的成果便是一张令人注目的照片。
 摄影构图原则:均衡

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火烈鸟

  右边的照片才是我们想要的:火烈鸟放松了下来,颈项形成了悦目的S型曲线,背景也更好。在摄影中,S型是一种很有吸引力的形态,值得注意寻找。

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几何图形

  你也可以利用其它几何图形来帮助构图。你能看出想象的联线在三位修女间形成的三角形吗?它加强了照片的整体感。

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模特和他们的倒影形成了多少个三角形

  请注意这对模特和他们的倒影形成了多少个三角形:研究并找出图片中线条和几何图形的力量和均衡感,借此来培养你的艺术眼光。

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  均衡是获得良好构图的另一原则。请注意树叶、窗户和两位模特的位置都恰到好处。为获得这张均衡的照片,相机视点和主体的位置都经过仔细安排。

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乡间小路

  掌握均衡就是合理安排形状、颜色和明暗区域,使其互相补充,使照片看上去很平衡,而不是…

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小女孩

  像这样歪向一边。由于照片中缺少视觉上的支撑物,凯伦看上去要摔出画面去了。

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小女孩

  现在我们调整相机视角,将至关重要的支持主体的车轮拍进去。虽然凯伦还是偏离照片中心,但整张照片是平衡的。

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两对夫妇

  想象一下这两对夫妇位于天平的两端,他们非常平衡。这是典型的对称均衡。

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大头雕塑与右侧小一些的儿童头部雕塑

  这是非对称式的均衡,由大头雕塑与右侧小一些的儿童头部雕塑构成。这种均衡法比对称式的更富趣味。

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这是一张均衡的照片,但两个主体可被纵向分成两张独立的照片,分散了观者的注意力。


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放松

  通常,你可以选择不同方式安排并平衡主体。你可以选择左图的方式,因为你要表达一种正式的感觉。或者,你更喜欢随便和放松的姿势,两种构图都很均衡。
摄影构图原则:框架

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美女

  不,这不是我们要讲的框架,尽管原则是相同的。

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帆船

  我们说的框架是指利用前景中的物体将主题框起来,这样做可以赋予照片纵深感,使其有别于一般的快照。

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是否在照片中利用框架取决于主题

  是否在照片中利用框架取决于主题,每张照片的主题都不相同,当然你用来作为框架的物体也不会相同。

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左边照片中的华盛顿纪念碑位于正中且没有框架衬托

  左边照片中的华盛顿纪念碑位于正中且没有框架衬托。而右边的照片显然具有更强的纵深感而且图片语言更加完整,这完全是因为摄影者选择了一个合适的前景,对纪念碑起到了良好的补充作用。

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马和骑马的人

  马和骑马的人为照片形成了极富味道的前景,垂挂的树枝补足了这一框架,为照片增加了纵深感。当你利用人物来取得平衡或是作为前景时,一定要让他们面向照片中心。

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硫磺岛战役纪念雕塑

  这两种对硫磺岛战役纪念雕塑的诠释都有效地利用了框架,为照片增添了空间感和趣味。
  摄影构图原则:避免遮盖
  不管你选择拍摄什么样的主题,注意不要让主题被遮盖。

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样张

  避免遮盖是我们获得良好构图的第六条原则。戴夫头上的这棵树这么明显,你可能觉得在按快门前没人会看不见它。但是记住:人观看物体的方式是三维的,因此实际上我们很容易只盯着主体而忽略了背景。
  反之,照相机却总老老实实地拍下所有东西。因此在让模特摆姿势前,先记得给他找个干净的背景。在本例中这么做其实很容易,照左右两张照片时相机只移动了几英尺。

screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.style.cursor='hand'; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' onclick='if(!this.resized) {return true;} else {window.open('http://i1.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/2780503933.jpg');}' alt='' src='http://i1.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/2780503933.jpg' onload='if(this.width>screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' border=0>


样张

  这是张有趣的照片,但是当我们把人切去一半或是砍掉他们的头或脚时,我们犯了一个'出界'的错误。产生这种毛病的原因通常是摄影者的眼睛和取景器没配合好:在取景时,一定要将眼睛正直地贴紧取景器。注意调整构图,在四边留空。

screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.style.cursor='hand'; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' onclick='if(!this.resized) {return true;} else {window.open('http://i2.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/232202091.jpg');}' alt='' src='http://i2.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/232202091.jpg' onload='if(this.width>screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' border=0>


样张

  靠近的干扰也许还不那么讨厌,但仍然会分散对主题的注意力。这种干扰是指某些物体和线条离主体太近,在本图中球和雨伞边就是这样。

screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.style.cursor='hand'; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' onclick='if(!this.resized) {return true;} else {window.open('http://i3.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/70826614.jpg');}' alt='' src='http://i3.sinaimg.cn/IT/cr/2007/1210/70826614.jpg' onload='if(this.width>screen.width*0.7) {this.resized=true; this.width=screen.width*0.7; this.alt='Click here to open new windownCTRL+Mouse wheel to zoom in/out';}' border=0>


样张

  我们通过低视角来改善一下,为了简化,道具也只用一样。注意飞盘要离凯特的脸足够远以避免干扰。
  这是我们关于构图的第六条原则。
关键词:教程摄影

作者:容儿

《让照片更吸引人 摄影构图六大原则图解[转载]》


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