×

新导航介绍,点击查看

梦想的国度——尼泊尔22天徒步和文化之旅(D19 D)

发表日期:2012-06-13 摄影器材: 尼康 D7000 景区:帕坦 点击数: 投票数:

(上接D19 C) 

孙达里庭院(Sundari Chowk)位于整个王宫的最南端,庭院中的下沉水槽被称为Tusha Hiti,上面雕刻着精美的花纹。水槽的中央是一座铜质的佛龛,但里面空空如也。庭院四周的檐柱上雕刻的木制佛像精美无比,但大多缺胳膊断腿,仅有的几尊完整的还附着着鲜艳的色彩。这座庭院还在维修中,不过已经开放参观了。在孙达里庭院的外面正门两侧,象神像和神猴哈努曼神像守护着这里,大门上方的镀金窗两侧镶嵌着象牙浮雕。在进门的一张办公桌上我们发现了一本留言薄,于是也用玩笑形式的文字在上面留了言,大家纷纷签上了大名。


P1977:孙达里庭院门口的神猴哈努曼神像


P1978:孙达里庭院精美的边门


P1979


P1980:孙达里庭院门口的象神像


P1981:庭院内部精美的木窗和檐柱


P1982:庭院内水槽中间的铜质佛龛


P1983:檐柱上的神像少了一只胳膊


P1984:镶嵌在墙上铜质的神像


P1985:这是檐柱上唯一一尊完整的神像


P1986:孙达里庭院的大门内侧


P1987:精美的木窗


P1988:精致的铁锁


P1989:从孙达里庭院能看到穆尔庭院的塔莱珠女神庙和
五层的Degutalle神庙上三层八角形的屋顶


P1990


P1991:我们在孙达里庭院留言薄上的留言和签名


孙达里庭院隔壁是穆尔庭院(Mul Chowk),这座中心庭院是王宫三座主要庭院中最大、最古老的一座,遗憾的是不对外开放。庭院的入口处有两尊石狮,是希迪纳拉希哈·马拉国王修建的,1662年毁于一场大火。1665~1666年斯里尼瓦萨·马拉国王又重新塑造了两尊石狮。庭院的中心处理着一座镀金的Bidya神庙。这座庭院目前正在维修中。

王宫的三座塔莱珠(Taleju)女神庙围绕在庭院的周围。塔莱珠神殿(或称Taleju Bhawani)的入口在庭院的南边,脚踏神鬼的恒河女神Ganga和骑乘鳄鱼的Jamuna分列两侧。

五层的Degutalle神庙位于庭院的东北角,它的顶端是三层的八角形塔楼。三重屋顶的塔莱珠(Taleju)女神庙规模比前两座神庙略大,它位于庭院的正北方,俯瞰着杜巴广场。这座神庙是希迪纳拉希哈·马拉国王在1640年修建的,在经理了一场大火和1934年的大地震之后,又相继得以重建。从14世纪开始,塔莱珠女神一直是马拉王朝的王室女神,祭祀她的宗教仪式就在这里举行。

王宫最北面(也就是最靠水渠)的庭院叫做马尼·凯夏布·纳拉扬庭院(Mani Keshab Narayan Chowk),通过金门(Golden Gate)或称太阳门(Sun Dhoka),可以进入这座庭院。这座庭院是1734年落成的,是王宫最新的部分。穿过这扇华丽的镀金门进入庭院,金色的三角墙上刻着湿婆神、帕尔瓦蒂、象神和库玛丽女神的像。三角墙的正上方有一扇金色的窗户,国王就在这里接受公众的朝拜。金门旁边的长椅是帕坦退休人员的至爱。


P1992:帕坦博物馆的招牌


P1993:金色的三角墙上刻着湿婆神、帕尔瓦蒂、象神和库玛丽女神的像,三角墙的正上方有一扇金色的窗户,国王就在这里接受公众的朝拜。


P1994:大门两侧上沿还有金色的浮雕


P1995:庭院内部有座白色的神殿 

围绕凯夏布·纳拉扬庭院的王宫部分经过重新修缮后显得富丽堂皇,光彩照人。这里已经变成了南亚次大陆最好的博物馆。在修缮的过程中人们为这座古老的建筑增加了一些现代原色,达到了新老的完美结合。改建完成后于1997年对外开放。

铸铜和镀金纯铜作品是帕坦博物馆的主要特色,这些工艺品绝大多数都是印度教和佛教中的神像。博物馆后面的H展馆靠近餐馆,这里收藏了20世纪末21世纪初的许多精彩照片。餐馆帕坦博物馆至少需要一个小时,当然两个小时更合适。可惜我们由于时间关系,只参观了一小时。博物馆后院有个餐厅,在马拉王朝时期,这里是表演舞蹈和戏剧的场所。博物馆还有一家商店(出售精美的博物馆招贴、画册和一些工艺品)和多处洗手间,馆内允许拍照,但大家最好尽量别用闪光灯,其实很多展品都被玻璃柜罩住,用闪光灯反而会导致反光。

帕坦博物馆门票:外国人/南亚联盟成员国公民和中国人Rs300/75,所以,这里是除巴德岗之外第二个对中国人有优惠的参观点。如果想要预览博物馆的亮点,可以登录http://www.asianart.com/patan-museum


Tickets 9:帕坦博物馆门票(南亚联盟成员国和中国人适用)


Tickets 10:帕坦博物馆说明书A面(查看清晰大图请点这里


Tickets 11:帕坦博物馆说明书B面(查看清晰大图请点这里

展馆分布在二层和三层,分A-H共8个部分。A区为总体介绍(Introduction),B区是关于湿婆神(Shiva)的工艺品,C区是关于毗湿奴(Vishnu)和宝座(Throne)的展品,D区是早期印度教的工艺品(Early Hinduism),E区是关于佛教(Buddhism)的内容,F区是临时展览区域(Temporary Exhibitions),G区是关于金属工艺(Metal Technology)制作过程的介绍,H区(在二层)是关于尼泊尔历史景观(Historic Views of Nepal)的介绍。

下面是部分展品的照片,有些展品我拍摄了介绍牌,因为本人英文水平很差,所以就照抄上来,不翻译了。


P1996:主楼梯口左侧的檐柱展品


P1997:主楼梯口右侧的檐柱展品


P1998:Identifying Postures - Sitting and standing postures are clues to identification. Placid poses of relaxation and meditation characterize peaceful manifestations; fierce manifestations choose dynamic poses.


P1999:Unique Attributes - Some deities can be identified by a unique attribute, or by a combination of them.


P2000:Why do gods have multiple heads and hands? - In the later development of Hindu and Buddhist practice, known as Tantrism or, in Vajrayana Buddhism, 'The Way of the Thunderbolt', deities are given multiple heads and limbs to better express their comples personalities and their multiple functions.


P2001


P2002:Hand Poses of Hindu and Buddhist deities - Known as mudra or hasta in Sanskrit, these gestures help define a deity's personality and functions, but they are also clues to identification.


P2003


P2004


P2005:Images and symbols can't always be identified - Only those who know their meaning can identify non-representational (aniconic) objects; the same stone or mystic diagram may signify different gods to different people. Images with missing attribures or pecuiar ones are also difficult to ...... (以下文字没有拍到)


P2006:Sacred Oil Lamp (dalu) - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze. - It is a Nepalese tradition to hang outdoors from the roof eaves an oil lamp (dalu) to illuminate and sanctify the sacred processions that pass by in the streets. Although some lamps are only a simple clay receptacle, others are elaborate bronze castings such as this example. It replicates the tall stone temple opposite the museum which was consecrated to the god Krishna in 1637 by one of the kings who lived in this palace. Like the temple, the lamp is decorated with many secondary finials and various symbolic creatures. Four serpents depend form the topmost finial, four birds occupy the second-story terrace corners, and four guardian lions (one is missing) are placed at the temple's corners between the four oil cups. Each cup is overseen by a tiny image of Ganesha, the deitu whose goodwill ensures the success of the passing festival and the householders' participation in it. Leaf-shaped pendants formerly swung from the rings along the lamp's lower edgs.



P2007:Shiva and Parvati - Nepal, 13th-14th centrey -Although seated as a loving couple these are in fact wrathful aspects as denoted by Shiva's contracted brow, skull and serpent ornaments, and by he serpents and skull cups the deities hold in their hands. The bronze is a superb example of Nepalese metalcraft.  


P2008


P2009:Four-Faced Shivalinga - Nepal, 18th century, Bronze - Although partial bodies seem to emerge from the linga it is still called 'four-faced.' Linga images are usually differentiated but these four are the same: a scowling, serpent-wreathed, wrathful aspect. Like yogis, each holds a waterpot and seed rosary. Serpents, ominpresent in Nepalese culture, encircle the top of the pedestal.


2010:Four-Faced Linga, Symbol of Shiva - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Stone - This phallic symbol of Shiva, called a linga or Shivalinga, bears four busts differentiated by coiffure, crowns, and other insignia. Each represents a subtle aspect of the god. South is the dread Bhairava, fearsome form of Shiva. His expression is calm but he wears. On his right side (governing the east) is Mahadeva and on the left an aspect named Nandin. This name is applied not only to Shiva's mount the bull but to Shiva, the other half, his spouse, Uma. Known as Ardha-narishvara (the Lord Who Is Half Woman), such joined images of the two deities are popular in Nepal.

As is typical of Nepalese 'face lingas' the four carved aspects all carry the primary emblems of the Hindu yogi: a rosary composed of sacred seeds from the rudraksha tree and a hand-carried water vessel.

Although referred to as four-faced (chaturmukha), this and all 'four-faced' lingas are understood to be five-faced (panchamukha) because an invisible fifth on the top faces the zenith.


P2011:Ganesha's transport, the Rat - Nepal, ca. 19th century, Bronze - The little rat - some say mouse or shrew - seems an unlikely vehicle for the corpulent Ganesha but is his designated mount and companion. This one wears a collar with bells and a decorative belt. It probably once faced a large enshrined image of the god to whom in uplifted paw it offered a ball of laddu. This sweet is favored by Ganesha and a bowl of it is commonly depicted in the hand of the gourmand god.


P2012:Ganesha - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Terracotta - Ganesha is ringed in flame and stands in a militant pose on two thick-tailed animals, probably representing his vehicle, the rat, mouse, or shrew. The god wears a long skirt, scarf, crown, and various ornaments.A serpent is his garland. Ever the gourmand, he dips his trunk into a bowl of sweets and holds a rosary, hatcher, and what may be a wood apple (shriphala), symbol of Shiva.


P2013:Ganesha - Nepal, ca 16th century, Bronze - More svelte than most Ganeshas, this one sits comfortably with his trunk handy to a bowl of sweets. His hands express argument or explanation (vitarka mudra) and charity (varada mudra). His broken tusk was self-inflicted when he hurled part of it at the moon for making fun of his corpulence.


P2014:Ganesha - Nepal, 18th-19th century, Copper - In this repousse plaque, Ganesha is depicted with six heads and six arms. He is seated on the braided bodies of serpents. The dance bells (ghamgala) on his legs are like those still worn by male Nepalese festival dancers.


P2015:Oil lamps

(1, the big) Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze, traces of gilt - Pitcher-shaped lamps such as these are called sukunda or dipa bhanda and represent Surya, the sun god, as witness to all sacred ceremonies. Oil-soaked cotton wicks burn in the projecting cup and the flame is kept fed by oil ladled from the body of the lamp. The flame is protected by lions and burns before an image of Ganesha, Lord of the Sacred Lamp. As destroyer (and maker) of obstacles, his blessing is necessary to ensure successful performance of the ritual.

(2, the small) Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze - On the handle of the larger of these two there is an image of Vishnu seated on Garuda protected by an eleven-headed serpent, itself sacred. Upon it crawls the god Krishna as a mischievous baby holding a pilfered butterball. Beneath the lamp cup are a pair of unidentified figures supported by Garuda, Vishnu's mount the sunbird. The lamp is also adorned with a variety of vegetative and geometric motifs and encircled with a garland of surprisingly jolly looking human skulls.


P2016


P2017:Lord Vishnu - Nepal, 10th-11th century, Stone - The manifestation of Vishnu as the Supreme Lord is especially popular in Nepal. For centuries it has been rendered in countless sculpture such as these. Dominating the composition, Vishnu stands serencly crect between his principal spouse, Lakshmi, and his companion and mount, Garuda. Threy are intentionally smaller to emphasize Vishnu's importance. Each figure stands on a lotus blossom whose tendrils surround them. Each deity's head is encircled with a flaming halo while a larger Circle of Radiance encompasses all. In keeping with the omnipresence of the serpent in Nepalese culture, a tiny one is tucked into the smaller Vishnu's right sash end and a pair of them coil around the stem of the larger Vishnu's lotus pedestal.

Vishnu, crowned and regally ornamented, wears the sacred thread over his left shoulder and looped under his sash. In his upper hands, he displays the weapons, discus and mace (chakra, gada) and in the lower ones lotus (padma) - symbolized by its seed - and conch shell (shankha). Lakshmi, in queenly dress, holds a full-bown pink lotus in one hand and a symbolic lotus in the other which is extended in the charity gesture. The snake-wreathed Garuda, human except for his cape-like wings, presses his palms together in a reverential gesture.

There are twenty-four variations of the Supreme Vishnu, each identified by the arrangement of the four hand-held attributes. When the attributes are arranged as in this sculpture, the god is named Shridhara. Another variation is Keshava Narayana whose presumed presence in the courtyard temple inspires one of the names of the palace quadrangle - now the museum - Keshav Narayan Chok. In accordance with the arrangement of attributes, however, the image actually represents the Trivikrama variation.


P2018:Fluting Vishnu on Garuda - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze - In this most unusual image Vishnu perches in the lotus position on the flying sunbird and holds a flute. The flute belongs to Krishna, one of Vishnu's avatars. Lotus plants springing from sacred water vessels surround him and on their blossoms sit seven small figures. Each assumes the lotus posture and holds the yogi's twin emblems, seed rosary and water vessel.


P2019:Narada, the Heavenly Musician - Nepal, 15th-16th century, Stone - An emaciated Narada bedecked with the sacred rudraksha seeds as headband, earrings, armlets, and long garland sits on a buffalo skin to play the vina or mahati, an instrument said to be his invention. His legs are loosely bound with a band (yogapatta) that ascetics use to support their legs during meditation.

Narada is sometimes regarded as one of Vishnu's avatars and wears the distinctive symbol of Vishnu on his forehead. He is also chief of the gandharvas, semi-divine winged beings, who are the musicians of the gods. It was Narada who first informed Parvati of her son's beheading. The boy's head was replaced with that of an elephant and he became the elephant-headed god Ganesha.


P2020:The Divine Play of Lord Krishna - Nepal, mid-17th century, Opaque watercolors on cotton cloth - This painting illustrates the text of thirty-one devotional songs, a genre known as Krishnalila. They concern the divine play (lila) of Lord Krishna, a beloved incarnation of Vishnu. The songs are said to have been composed by Siddhi Narasimha Malla, ruler of the Patan kingdom from 1619 to 1661, but they are strongly influenced by classical Indian poetry.

The painting is arranged in five narrative registers, to be viewed from left to right, top to bottom. Each register contains several scenes, separated by exotic vegetation and set against a background of snow-capped mountains. Krishna - colored blue, of superhuman size, and often playing his flute - appears several times (the second upper left scene, for example). He is sometimes in company with gopis,adoring milkmaids who in the songs lament their unrequited love. The first scene depicts Shiva, his consort Gauri, his mount Nandi, two attendants and, far right, King Siddhi Narasimha Malla. The king and the numerous gopis wear Mughal-style dress like that worn at the late Malla Period courts.

The devotional songs are written in old Newari above the corresponding scenes. With one exception - the fourteenth-cebtury Gopala Chronicle - they are the oldest Newari texts to be critically studied and translated.

For many years this painting has been displayed annually in front of the nearby Krishna temple on the day of the May-June full moon - the lunar month of Jyestha - when to instrumental accompaniment the devotional songs are sung in Krishna's honor. Siddhi Narasimha had this temple built for Krishna in 1673.


P2021:Pair of Ceremonial Staffs - Nepal, 19th-20th century, Silver, gilt - According to lengthy inscriptions on the tops of these staffs a number of Patan residents presented them to the god Bhimsen (Bhimasena) whom they refer to with the honorific 'Aju' (Grandfather). One of the inscriptions notes the amount of gold and silver used in making the two staffs - respectively, one tola and 96 tola. A tola is approximately 12 grams (less than a half ounce); 96 tola are a little over one kilogram (around 40 ounces). Both inscriptions are dated in an unknown era 'Shiva Samvat' but mention the reigning king Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah. He was king of Nepal between 1875 and 1911.


P2022:镀金的那迦蛇神


P2023:Two Budhist ritual bells/Incense Burner/Three Temple Bells


P2024:Surya Mandala/Incense Burner - This holder of 12 oil lamps was used in the daily morning worship of Surya. The sun god is represented by the circular lotus (此处斜体字单词看不清) in the back, and by mounts the 12 bones in froet.


P2025:有着象牙手柄的铜镜


P2026:Three typical Nepalese bottles - Such bottles are used for serving Chang and rakshi, the common alcoholic beverages made from rice.


P2027


P2028


P2029:Siddhi Lakshmi: Goddess of miraculous power - Nepal, 16th-17th century, Bronze, gilt, paint - This image depicts a wrathful manifestation of the Hindu goddess Durga known as Siddhi Lakshmi or Purnacandi. Shi is supported on the upheld palms of her consort Shiva in his fierce Bhairava aspect.


P2030:The Goddess Bhrikuti - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Wood, gesso, polychrome paint, gilt - Bhrikuti ('The Frowner') is a goddess of compassion also known as the Yellow Tara. Considered a bodhisattva, she belongs to the cosmic Buddha family presided over by the Buddha Amitabha. She has several forms, most common of which is this four-armed version. Here she is attractively dressed in a short blouse, patterned skirt and billowing scarf, and is crowned, garlanded, and ornamented. She displays three attributes: a rosary, a tripartite emblem (tridanda), and a small water vessel. She extends the fourth hand in a gesture of homage.

Legend affirms that Bhrikuti was the name of the Nepalese bride of the seventh-century Tibetan king, Srong-tsen-gam-po(松赞干布). Along with a Chinese bride she is often credited with introducing Buddhism to Tibet. In their dowries both brides apparently did bring precious Buddhist images some of which are believed to be still enshrined in Lhasa.

本文斜体字部分摘自Lonely Planet的《尼泊尔》(展品介绍里的除外)

(下接D19 E)

关键词:旅行尼泊尔

作者:老J

《梦想的国度——尼泊尔22天徒步和文化之旅(D19 D)》


下一篇:没有了

最 新:
没有其它新的作品了

更多老J的POCO作品...

评论