|发表日期：2012-06-13||摄影器材： 尼康 D7000||景区：帕坦||点击数：… 投票数：…|
孙达里庭院（Sundari Chowk）位于整个王宫的最南端，庭院中的下沉水槽被称为Tusha Hiti，上面雕刻着精美的花纹。水槽的中央是一座铜质的佛龛，但里面空空如也。庭院四周的檐柱上雕刻的木制佛像精美无比，但大多缺胳膊断腿，仅有的几尊完整的还附着着鲜艳的色彩。这座庭院还在维修中，不过已经开放参观了。在孙达里庭院的外面正门两侧，象神像和神猴哈努曼神像守护着这里，大门上方的镀金窗两侧镶嵌着象牙浮雕。在进门的一张办公桌上我们发现了一本留言薄，于是也用玩笑形式的文字在上面留了言，大家纷纷签上了大名。
王宫最北面（也就是最靠水渠）的庭院叫做马尼·凯夏布·纳拉扬庭院（Mani Keshab Narayan Chowk），通过金门（Golden Gate）或称太阳门（Sun Dhoka），可以进入这座庭院。这座庭院是1734年落成的，是王宫最新的部分。穿过这扇华丽的镀金门进入庭院，金色的三角墙上刻着湿婆神、帕尔瓦蒂、象神和库玛丽女神的像。三角墙的正上方有一扇金色的窗户，国王就在这里接受公众的朝拜。金门旁边的长椅是帕坦退休人员的至爱。
展馆分布在二层和三层，分A-H共8个部分。A区为总体介绍（Introduction），B区是关于湿婆神（Shiva）的工艺品，C区是关于毗湿奴（Vishnu）和宝座（Throne）的展品，D区是早期印度教的工艺品（Early Hinduism），E区是关于佛教（Buddhism）的内容，F区是临时展览区域（Temporary Exhibitions），G区是关于金属工艺（Metal Technology）制作过程的介绍，H区（在二层）是关于尼泊尔历史景观（Historic Views of Nepal）的介绍。
P1998：Identifying Postures - Sitting and standing postures are clues to identification. Placid poses of relaxation and meditation characterize peaceful manifestations; fierce manifestations choose dynamic poses.
P1999：Unique Attributes - Some deities can be identified by a unique attribute, or by a combination of them.
P2000：Why do gods have multiple heads and hands? - In the later development of Hindu and Buddhist practice, known as Tantrism or, in Vajrayana Buddhism, 'The Way of the Thunderbolt', deities are given multiple heads and limbs to better express their comples personalities and their multiple functions.
P2002：Hand Poses of Hindu and Buddhist deities - Known as mudra or hasta in Sanskrit, these gestures help define a deity's personality and functions, but they are also clues to identification.
P2005：Images and symbols can't always be identified - Only those who know their meaning can identify non-representational (aniconic) objects; the same stone or mystic diagram may signify different gods to different people. Images with missing attribures or pecuiar ones are also difficult to ...... （以下文字没有拍到）
P2006：Sacred Oil Lamp (dalu) - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze. - It is a Nepalese tradition to hang outdoors from the roof eaves an oil lamp (dalu) to illuminate and sanctify the sacred processions that pass by in the streets. Although some lamps are only a simple clay receptacle, others are elaborate bronze castings such as this example. It replicates the tall stone temple opposite the museum which was consecrated to the god Krishna in 1637 by one of the kings who lived in this palace. Like the temple, the lamp is decorated with many secondary finials and various symbolic creatures. Four serpents depend form the topmost finial, four birds occupy the second-story terrace corners, and four guardian lions (one is missing) are placed at the temple's corners between the four oil cups. Each cup is overseen by a tiny image of Ganesha, the deitu whose goodwill ensures the success of the passing festival and the householders' participation in it. Leaf-shaped pendants formerly swung from the rings along the lamp's lower edgs.
P2007：Shiva and Parvati - Nepal, 13th-14th centrey -Although seated as a loving couple these are in fact wrathful aspects as denoted by Shiva's contracted brow, skull and serpent ornaments, and by he serpents and skull cups the deities hold in their hands. The bronze is a superb example of Nepalese metalcraft.
P2009：Four-Faced Shivalinga - Nepal, 18th century, Bronze - Although partial bodies seem to emerge from the linga it is still called 'four-faced.' Linga images are usually differentiated but these four are the same: a scowling, serpent-wreathed, wrathful aspect. Like yogis, each holds a waterpot and seed rosary. Serpents, ominpresent in Nepalese culture, encircle the top of the pedestal.
2010：Four-Faced Linga, Symbol of Shiva - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Stone - This phallic symbol of Shiva, called a linga or Shivalinga, bears four busts differentiated by coiffure, crowns, and other insignia. Each represents a subtle aspect of the god. South is the dread Bhairava, fearsome form of Shiva. His expression is calm but he wears. On his right side (governing the east) is Mahadeva and on the left an aspect named Nandin. This name is applied not only to Shiva's mount the bull but to Shiva, the other half, his spouse, Uma. Known as Ardha-narishvara (the Lord Who Is Half Woman), such joined images of the two deities are popular in Nepal.
As is typical of Nepalese 'face lingas' the four carved aspects all carry the primary emblems of the Hindu yogi: a rosary composed of sacred seeds from the rudraksha tree and a hand-carried water vessel.
Although referred to as four-faced (chaturmukha), this and all 'four-faced' lingas are understood to be five-faced (panchamukha) because an invisible fifth on the top faces the zenith.
P2011：Ganesha's transport, the Rat - Nepal, ca. 19th century, Bronze - The little rat - some say mouse or shrew - seems an unlikely vehicle for the corpulent Ganesha but is his designated mount and companion. This one wears a collar with bells and a decorative belt. It probably once faced a large enshrined image of the god to whom in uplifted paw it offered a ball of laddu. This sweet is favored by Ganesha and a bowl of it is commonly depicted in the hand of the gourmand god.
P2012：Ganesha - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Terracotta - Ganesha is ringed in flame and stands in a militant pose on two thick-tailed animals, probably representing his vehicle, the rat, mouse, or shrew. The god wears a long skirt, scarf, crown, and various ornaments.A serpent is his garland. Ever the gourmand, he dips his trunk into a bowl of sweets and holds a rosary, hatcher, and what may be a wood apple (shriphala), symbol of Shiva.
P2013：Ganesha - Nepal, ca 16th century, Bronze - More svelte than most Ganeshas, this one sits comfortably with his trunk handy to a bowl of sweets. His hands express argument or explanation (vitarka mudra) and charity (varada mudra). His broken tusk was self-inflicted when he hurled part of it at the moon for making fun of his corpulence.
P2014：Ganesha - Nepal, 18th-19th century, Copper - In this repousse plaque, Ganesha is depicted with six heads and six arms. He is seated on the braided bodies of serpents. The dance bells (ghamgala) on his legs are like those still worn by male Nepalese festival dancers.
(1, the big) Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze, traces of gilt - Pitcher-shaped lamps such as these are called sukunda or dipa bhanda and represent Surya, the sun god, as witness to all sacred ceremonies. Oil-soaked cotton wicks burn in the projecting cup and the flame is kept fed by oil ladled from the body of the lamp. The flame is protected by lions and burns before an image of Ganesha, Lord of the Sacred Lamp. As destroyer (and maker) of obstacles, his blessing is necessary to ensure successful performance of the ritual.
(2, the small) Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze - On the handle of the larger of these two there is an image of Vishnu seated on Garuda protected by an eleven-headed serpent, itself sacred. Upon it crawls the god Krishna as a mischievous baby holding a pilfered butterball. Beneath the lamp cup are a pair of unidentified figures supported by Garuda, Vishnu's mount the sunbird. The lamp is also adorned with a variety of vegetative and geometric motifs and encircled with a garland of surprisingly jolly looking human skulls.
P2017：Lord Vishnu - Nepal, 10th-11th century, Stone - The manifestation of Vishnu as the Supreme Lord is especially popular in Nepal. For centuries it has been rendered in countless sculpture such as these. Dominating the composition, Vishnu stands serencly crect between his principal spouse, Lakshmi, and his companion and mount, Garuda. Threy are intentionally smaller to emphasize Vishnu's importance. Each figure stands on a lotus blossom whose tendrils surround them. Each deity's head is encircled with a flaming halo while a larger Circle of Radiance encompasses all. In keeping with the omnipresence of the serpent in Nepalese culture, a tiny one is tucked into the smaller Vishnu's right sash end and a pair of them coil around the stem of the larger Vishnu's lotus pedestal.
Vishnu, crowned and regally ornamented, wears the sacred thread over his left shoulder and looped under his sash. In his upper hands, he displays the weapons, discus and mace (chakra, gada) and in the lower ones lotus (padma) - symbolized by its seed - and conch shell (shankha). Lakshmi, in queenly dress, holds a full-bown pink lotus in one hand and a symbolic lotus in the other which is extended in the charity gesture. The snake-wreathed Garuda, human except for his cape-like wings, presses his palms together in a reverential gesture.
There are twenty-four variations of the Supreme Vishnu, each identified by the arrangement of the four hand-held attributes. When the attributes are arranged as in this sculpture, the god is named Shridhara. Another variation is Keshava Narayana whose presumed presence in the courtyard temple inspires one of the names of the palace quadrangle - now the museum - Keshav Narayan Chok. In accordance with the arrangement of attributes, however, the image actually represents the Trivikrama variation.
P2018：Fluting Vishnu on Garuda - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Bronze - In this most unusual image Vishnu perches in the lotus position on the flying sunbird and holds a flute. The flute belongs to Krishna, one of Vishnu's avatars. Lotus plants springing from sacred water vessels surround him and on their blossoms sit seven small figures. Each assumes the lotus posture and holds the yogi's twin emblems, seed rosary and water vessel.
P2019：Narada, the Heavenly Musician - Nepal, 15th-16th century, Stone - An emaciated Narada bedecked with the sacred rudraksha seeds as headband, earrings, armlets, and long garland sits on a buffalo skin to play the vina or mahati, an instrument said to be his invention. His legs are loosely bound with a band (yogapatta) that ascetics use to support their legs during meditation.
Narada is sometimes regarded as one of Vishnu's avatars and wears the distinctive symbol of Vishnu on his forehead. He is also chief of the gandharvas, semi-divine winged beings, who are the musicians of the gods. It was Narada who first informed Parvati of her son's beheading. The boy's head was replaced with that of an elephant and he became the elephant-headed god Ganesha.
P2020：The Divine Play of Lord Krishna - Nepal, mid-17th century, Opaque watercolors on cotton cloth - This painting illustrates the text of thirty-one devotional songs, a genre known as Krishnalila. They concern the divine play (lila) of Lord Krishna, a beloved incarnation of Vishnu. The songs are said to have been composed by Siddhi Narasimha Malla, ruler of the Patan kingdom from 1619 to 1661, but they are strongly influenced by classical Indian poetry.
The painting is arranged in five narrative registers, to be viewed from left to right, top to bottom. Each register contains several scenes, separated by exotic vegetation and set against a background of snow-capped mountains. Krishna - colored blue, of superhuman size, and often playing his flute - appears several times (the second upper left scene, for example). He is sometimes in company with gopis,adoring milkmaids who in the songs lament their unrequited love. The first scene depicts Shiva, his consort Gauri, his mount Nandi, two attendants and, far right, King Siddhi Narasimha Malla. The king and the numerous gopis wear Mughal-style dress like that worn at the late Malla Period courts.
The devotional songs are written in old Newari above the corresponding scenes. With one exception - the fourteenth-cebtury Gopala Chronicle - they are the oldest Newari texts to be critically studied and translated.
For many years this painting has been displayed annually in front of the nearby Krishna temple on the day of the May-June full moon - the lunar month of Jyestha - when to instrumental accompaniment the devotional songs are sung in Krishna's honor. Siddhi Narasimha had this temple built for Krishna in 1673.
P2021：Pair of Ceremonial Staffs - Nepal, 19th-20th century, Silver, gilt - According to lengthy inscriptions on the tops of these staffs a number of Patan residents presented them to the god Bhimsen (Bhimasena) whom they refer to with the honorific 'Aju' (Grandfather). One of the inscriptions notes the amount of gold and silver used in making the two staffs - respectively, one tola and 96 tola. A tola is approximately 12 grams (less than a half ounce); 96 tola are a little over one kilogram (around 40 ounces). Both inscriptions are dated in an unknown era 'Shiva Samvat' but mention the reigning king Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah. He was king of Nepal between 1875 and 1911.
P2023：Two Budhist ritual bells/Incense Burner/Three Temple Bells
P2024：Surya Mandala/Incense Burner - This holder of 12 oil lamps was used in the daily morning worship of Surya. The sun god is represented by the circular lotus （此处斜体字单词看不清） in the back, and by mounts the 12 bones in froet.
P2026：Three typical Nepalese bottles - Such bottles are used for serving Chang and rakshi, the common alcoholic beverages made from rice.
P2029：Siddhi Lakshmi: Goddess of miraculous power - Nepal, 16th-17th century, Bronze, gilt, paint - This image depicts a wrathful manifestation of the Hindu goddess Durga known as Siddhi Lakshmi or Purnacandi. Shi is supported on the upheld palms of her consort Shiva in his fierce Bhairava aspect.
P2030：The Goddess Bhrikuti - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Wood, gesso, polychrome paint, gilt - Bhrikuti ('The Frowner') is a goddess of compassion also known as the Yellow Tara. Considered a bodhisattva, she belongs to the cosmic Buddha family presided over by the Buddha Amitabha. She has several forms, most common of which is this four-armed version. Here she is attractively dressed in a short blouse, patterned skirt and billowing scarf, and is crowned, garlanded, and ornamented. She displays three attributes: a rosary, a tripartite emblem (tridanda), and a small water vessel. She extends the fourth hand in a gesture of homage.
Legend affirms that Bhrikuti was the name of the Nepalese bride of the seventh-century Tibetan king, Srong-tsen-gam-po（松赞干布）. Along with a Chinese bride she is often credited with introducing Buddhism to Tibet. In their dowries both brides apparently did bring precious Buddhist images some of which are believed to be still enshrined in Lhasa.