梦想的国度——尼泊尔22天徒步和文化之旅(D19 E)

发表日期:2012-06-13 摄影器材: 尼康 D7000 景区:帕坦 点击数: 投票数:

(上接D19 D) 


P2032:Portrait of a lama - Tibet, 16th-17th century or earlier, Bronze, silver and copper inlay, traces cold gold

P2033:Milarepa - Tibet, 14th-15th century (later pedestal), Copper alloy, gilt, cold gold, paint

P2034:Portrait of a lama - Tibet, ca. 16th century, Brass, copper, silver

P2035:Padmasambhava - Tibet, 16th century, Wood, paint

P2036:Padmasambhava - Tibet, 17th century, Brinze, silver and copper inlay

P2032-2036的说明:Revered Historical Persons - Porrait-like images abound in Tibetan Buddhism. These symbolize important personages, including the founders of sects, famous lamas (monks, literally 'superiors'), teachers and renowned Tantric adepts (mahasiddhas). Few are real portraits. Some, like Milarepa (P2034) 'The Cotton Clad', a famed 12th century poer-monk can be recognized by their distinctive iconography. Milarepa is always shown seated with his right hand cupped to his ear as if listening to divine music.

Lamas are depicted wearing monastic robes and sometimes the special hat of their order. They often display attributes and hand poses associated with the particular Buddhist deities they are believed to incarnate. The two lama images in this case (P2032,2033), bear inscriptions but neither records the lamas' names, usually the only way such images can be identified. One is named as an emanation of Vajrasattva and may be the Panchen Lama Chogle Namgyal, who lived from 1375 to 1451, and whose sect was active in the Mustang region of Nepal.

Padmasambhava (2035,2036), the 8th century Indian tantric master who brought Buddhism to Tibet, was considered to be one of the 84 'Great Perfected Ones' venerated for their great knowledge and magic powers. He is always represented seated, wearing monks' robes and a hat typical of those worn in his homeland, the Swat Vally of Pakistan, once a Buddhist stronghold. He carries a magic wand (khatvanga) over his left shoulder. The smaller Padmasambhava is an especially fine sculpture in wood.

P2037:Shakyamuni, the Historical Buddha - Nepal, 12th century, Copper alloy, gilt - This superb example of Nepalese metal craft depicts the historical Buddha in his most typical pose, seated in meditation, one hand in his lap, the other pendant in the earth-witness gesture. In keeping with traditional representations, this Buddha has a cranial protuberance (ushnisha) signifying supernatural wisdom and a mark between the eyes (urna), signifying spiritual illumination. His distinctive coiffure represents the curls which grew back after he cut off his long, princely locks with his sword. The curl-covered ushnisha is also surmounted by a knob representing a symbolic jewel (cudamani). As an unusual feature, the sumptuous earrings the Buddha wore as the prince Siddhartha Gautama Have been restored to him here, and although he wears a monk's robe its decorative borders are more in keeping with princely raiment.


P2039:Akshobya - Nepal ca. 12th century, Bronze, gilt, silver and copper inlay - East-facing Akshobya ('The Imperturbable') is important as the carrier of the thunderbolt (vajra), the primary symbol of later Buddhism. Without the vajra, the image would be identified as Shakyamuni.

P2040:Maitreya, the Buddha to Come - Nepal, 18th century, Copper repousse, bronze - In this contemplative image Maitreya, 'The Benevolent,' is Turning the Wheel of the Law (dharmachakra mudra) in the Tushita Heaven. There as a bodhisattva he teaches Buddhist doctrine to celestial beings until he descends to this world as the future mortal Buddha.

Dressed in princely raiment and splendid ornaments (some are missing), his hair is braided into an elaborate ascetic's chignon. It supports a chaitya, or stupa, the sacred monument of the Buddhist world. The chaitya is Maitreya's most characteristic attribute and refers to the belief that Shakyamuni Buddha's garments are enclosed in a stupa near Bodhgaya to which at his descent Maitreya will go to retrieve them. Other typical attributes of Maitreya are the ascetic's water vessel and a wheel.

As a bodhisattva Maitteya - often called 'Maitri' in Nepal - is believed to be active in this world and although his Buddhahood is yet to come he is sometimes depicted as a Buddha seated with pendant legs.

P2041:Vajrasattva and Prajna - Nepal, A.D. 1859, Copper, gilt - When Vajrasattva, the 'Sixth Buddha' is depicted in mystic union with his consort, traditionally they may be seen only by the initiated. Their lion throne is an an ancient symbol of majesty. Both carry thunderbolts (vajra), the means to enlightenment, and bells, symbolizing impermanence because the sounds do not last.


P2043:Tara of the Seven Eyes - Tibet, 17th-18th century, Bronze, cold gold, paint, turquoise - In this special manifestation Tara has seven eyes: the expected two, a third on her forehead, and one each on the palms and soles. It appears to be a form unique to Tibet and Nepal.

P2044:Vaishravana - Tibet, 17th-18th century, Copper, gilt, paint, semi-precious stones - When Jambhala/Kubera functions as a directional guardian (dikpala) of the north he is usually known as Vaishravana and may, as here, sit on his snow lion vehicle holding a victory banner but still grasping the jewel-spouting mongoose.

P2045:Shakyamuni Buddha - Nepal, 17th-18th century, Copper, gilt, paint - Probably once the principal image of a monastery shrine, this impressive image of the buddha in his popular Victory over Mara pose, provides a remarkable example of the skill of Nepalese artisans in transmuting sheets of copper into stunning images of the gods. Except for the solid cast hands and the lower portion of the ears, the image is hollow, entirely composed of numerous, vari-sized sheets of copper ingeniously fastened together by almost invisible dovetailing. This joinery is supplemented with riveting as necessary. After forming the head in the repousse technique explained nearby, it was fitted over the torso and held in place with copper rivers, carefully concealed on the front but visible in the rear. Similarly, the torso is fitted over and riveted to the lower part of the image. Rivets were also used to hold the edges of the dovetailed sheets together after they had been rolled up to make the arms. As a final step, the front of the image was gilded. At some time also the deity's hair was painted blue, his palms and soles painted red, and the edges of his robe colored. There are also traces of red paint around his neck and ears.

Images of other materials such as stone or clay traditionally were often later enriched with gilded sheet copper coverings known as kosha or kavacha. Where as those for small pre-existing images were made exactly like the Bhairava head in the adjoining cases, covers for large images were made in a technique paralleling the construction of this image. In this case, however, some of the pieces were not joined permanently by dovetailing but riveted to facilitate assembly around the pre-existing image.





P2047:从窗户看出去的广场北端的Manga Hiti水渠和Mani Mandap看台,后面的比姆森神庙(Bhimsen)正在维修


P2049:对面的黑天神庙(克利须那庙,Krishna Mandir)和迦卢荼的石柱


















(下接D19 F)



《梦想的国度——尼泊尔22天徒步和文化之旅(D19 E)》


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