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旧版新概念英语文章-第四册倾情奉献之十三

发表日期:2009-08-27 摄影器材: 点击数: 投票数:
  • 旧版新概念英语文章-第四册倾情奉献之十三

    2009-08-02

    17. Intelligence

    The fact that we are not sure what ‘intelligence’ is nor what is passed on does not prevent us from finding it a very useful working concept and placing a certain amount of reliance on tests which ‘measure’ it.

    In an intelligence test we take a sample of an individual’s ability to solve puzzles and problems of various kinds and if we have taken a representative sample it will allow us to predict successfully the level of performance he will reach in a wide variety of occupations.

    This became of particular importance when as a result of the 1944 Education Act secondary schooling for all became law and grammar schools with the exception of a small number of independent foundation schools became available to the whole population. Since the number of grammar schools in the country could accommodate at most approximately 25 per cent of the total child population of the eleven-plus some kind of selection had to be made. Narrowly academic examinations and tests were felt quite rightly to be heavily weighted in favor of children of children who had had the advantage of highly-academic primary schools and academically biased homes.

    Intelligence tests were devised to counteract this narrow specialization by introducing problems which were not based on specifically scholastically-acquired knowledge. The intelligence test is an attempt to assess the general ability of any child to think reason judge analyse and synthesize by presenting him with situations both verbal and practical which are within his range of competence and understanding.

    Beatrix Tudor-Hart

    Roger Comment:

    I just can not understand can people find a way of measuring the intelligence objectively.

    18. Scientific Research

    Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry. One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities or even often enough in other departments of the same firm. The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably.

    Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret. Yet a great many processes at which patents can be taken out. Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes. This applies particularly to chemical industries where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries. Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned. Many firms for instance have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.

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    作者:爱我吧

    《旧版新概念英语文章-第四册倾情奉献之十三》


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